ChiropracticÂ is aÂ complementary and alternative medicineÂ health care professionÂ and an approach to healing concerned with the diagnosis, treatment and prevention of disorders of the neuromusculoskeletal system and the effects of these disorders on general health.Â Chiropractors emphasizeÂ manual therapyÂ including joint adjustment and manipulation with particular focus on joint dysfunction/subluxations.Â Currently, chiropractors practice in over 100 countries in all regions of the world, however chiropractors are most prevalent inÂ North America,Â AustraliaÂ and parts ofÂ Europe.Â Most people who seek chiropractic care do so forÂ low back pain.
Chiropractic was founded in 1895 byÂ magnetic healer, D.D. Palmer, in Davenport, Iowa. Chiropractic theory on spinal joint dysfunction and its putative role in non-musculoskeletal disease has been a source of controversy since its inception in 1895. The controversy is due in part to chiropractic’sÂ vitalisticÂ andÂ metaphysicalÂ origins, and use of terminology that is not always amenable toÂ scientific investigation.Â Far reaching claims and lack of scientific evidence supporting spinal dysfunction/subluxation as the sole cause of disease has led to a critical evaluation of a central tenet of chiropractic and the appropriateness of the profession’s role in treating a broad spectrum of disorders that are unrelated to the neuromusculoskeletal system.Â Although there is external and internal debate within the chiropractic profession regarding the clinical significance of joint dysfunction/vertebral subluxation complex,Â the manipulable lesion/functional spinal lesionÂ remains inextricably linked to the profession as basis for spinal manipulation.
TheÂ scientific consensusÂ is that chiropractic may be on a par with other manual therapies for someÂ musculoskeletalÂ conditions such as lower back pain, but that there is no credible evidence or mechanism for effects on other conditions, and some evidence of severe adverse effects from cervical vertebral manipulation.Â The ideas ofÂ innate intelligenceÂ and the chiropractic subluxation are regarded asÂ pseudoscience.